Emunah Based on the Teachings of Rebbe Nachman of Breslov

Posts tagged ‘Shabbos’

Spirit of the Law – Shabbos Part V

Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 72:12:

“It is a mitzvah to wash one’s hands and face … in hot water every erev Shabbos, and if it is at all possible, one should wash his entire body in hot water..”

Rebbe Nachman writes that we must realize that when we do something which distances us from Hashem, the sin forms a blemish that enclothes our souls like a garment. We all unfortunately have very many such garments, and we remove these garments a little at a time. For this reason we often seem to regress while we travel the path of spiritual development. We misunderstand the truth of our situation if we see temporary regressions as symptoms of outright failure. They only show that we are slowly releasing ourselves from these blemished garments which cover our souls.

At first, our progress was checked because we were held back by these garments. Subsequently, our progress improved and we felt better because we had divested ourselves of the uppermost layer of the soiled spiritual garments. A later regression does not necessarily mean that we did anything to instigate a fall—rather, it is just a sign that the next soiled garment is surfacing and it needs attention.

Rebbe Nachman’s words offer powerful encouragement for us when we feel that we are experiencing a yeridah (descent). The general rule is that we can remove all the soiled garments slowly, over the course of many years, by learning Torah diligently with the intention to connect to Hashem and with the knowledge of the flaws that we want to correct.

Reb Nosson of Breslov writes that when washing on erev Shabbos, one should focus on the fact that he is removing the soiled garment of the soul and replacing it with clean garments in the merit of Shabbos. On Shabbos, the main element of our soiled spiritual garments is nullified by the holiness of the day itself. This is why we don our Shabbos finery after bathing on erev Shabbos. This parallel the clean garments with which our souls are dressed—the extra soul-level or neshamah yeseirah that arrives in honor of the Shabbos.

Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 72:13:

“It is forbidden to share a mikveh or bathing area with one’s father, father-in-law, mother’s husband, or sister’s husband…”

The Gemara teaches this halachah and its rationale is that bathing with one of these people can trigger lewd thoughts. Although there are various reasons suggested for why most are lenient about this law, the consensus is that one must be careful to fulfill it. The general rule is that the sages prohibited any activity which could lead to illicit thoughts when a person is in a low state. The reason for this is simple: better safe than sorry. Since what we do matters so much it is very important to have proper safeguards in place so we will not come to do what we may regret later. Another example of this is the prohibition against yichud.

Rebbe Nachman, zt”l, offers a prescription for avoiding negative thoughts. Since two thoughts cannot exist simultaneously in one’s mind, one has the ability to force a redirect in thinking at any moment in time. The thought process is literally like a horse that can stray from the road. However, as soon as one is aware of it the problem is easily rectified. One simply takes the reins in one’s hands and directs the horse in another direction. The horse has no choice but to go where directed. Similarly, one takes hold of his thoughts and turns them in a different direction. This is explained further in Chayei Moharan. There, Reb Nosson, zt”l, describes what he heard from a fellow student in Rebbe Nachman’s name.
“Thoughts were created fluid. For this reason, one’s mind is always on the move, going from thought to thought. [Note: It takes a lot of training to think of one thing for a long period of time. Rav Pinchas of Koritz, zt”l, said that an average person cannot focus on the same good thought for over a half-hour, even on Shabbos! ] This is like the pendulum in a clock that swings from second to second. Even when one sleeps, one’s thoughts are always moving fluidly. When one slumbers deeply he doesn’t remember what he thought but he was always thinking and his thoughts continued to march along. Just insert a different thought into the flow.”

On this subject, Reb Nosson taught that our thoughts are in our hands to think as we will. This is the main place where our free choice is manifest. If I don’t think about it, I will not do it. Similarly, if all day I am focusing on learning or connecting to Hashem, eventually I will achieve this. The main thing in thinking good thoughts and not bad thoughts is that first bad thought. We must be ever vigilant to redirect the beginnings of what seems to be leading to places we don’t want our thoughts to go. When our trend first seems to be turning to a bad place it is still quite easy to redirect our thoughts to better places.

The main protection against negative thoughts, however, is simplicity and temimus. We must accustom ourselves not to be sophisticated and to refrain from thinking extraneous thoughts. We should not let our thoughts roam and we shouldn’t think “too much.” We must cry out very much to Hashem about this—someone who is accustomed to thinking bad thoughts needs to be careful not to give up at all but to cry out to Hashem each time he falls. He must take hold of his thoughts at all times and return them from the depths of the evil inclination to the purity and simplicity of the true Tzaddik.

Someone asked Rav Yosef Chaim Sonnenfeld, zt”l, what he can do to help weed out troubling thoughts. After all, one is not really in control of his thoughts, is he? The Rav told him to return early that night. When the inquirer approached the house he could hear the large family being put to bed. He knocked on the door but no one answered. Assuming that he had not been heard, he knocked again. There was no response. He spent the next ten minutes knocking until he finally left. When he next saw the Rav, he asked about this peculiar occurrence.

Rav Yosef Chaim Sonnenfeld explained, “I am the baal habayis. If I want you to enter, you enter. If not, you don’t. You are the baal habayis of your head. Leave the negative thoughts outside!”

courtesy of A Fire Burns in Breslov

 

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Praying for Ones Needs on Shabbos (Part I)

By HaRav Shimon Anshin shlit”a

A.   The Talmud Yerushalmi (Shabbos 15:3) writes that it is prohibited to appeal to Hashem for one’s needs on Shabbos.  And even though this prohibition it is not mentioned in the Talmud Bavli, and there is no such ruling to be found in the Rambam or Shulchan Aruch, nevertheless, some Rishonim together with the Tur (siman 188) and the Achronim, do in fact bring such a ruling.

The following are a few reasons brought by the Poskim as to why appealing to Hashem for one’s needs on Shabbos is forbidden:

1. That one should not come to cry on Shabbos (Ra”n).

2. That one has to consider Shabbos to be lacking nothing – i.e. nothing is left incomplete on Shabbos (Korban Haeida).

3. That one should not come to speak words of weekday matters (Divrei Chol) on Shabbos (Questions and Answers of the Yaabetz)

Now, even though there is no Biblical or Rabbinical prohibition against making such requests on Shabbos, doing so then would nevertheless be considered a transgression of the rulings of the Chachamim.

So, on the one hand then, it appears by the statement of the Yerushalmi that there is no license to appeal for one’s physical or spiritual needs on Shabbos, yet on the other hand, we find many prayers on Shabbos that do deal specifically with requesting one’s needs. In this form then, the Poskim rule that it is in fact permissible to make requests for one’s needs. And so,

B.  Any established prayers that contain requests for one’s needs, have no issue in regards to the abovementioned prohibition, for example:

1. “…Ro’einu, Tzo’neinu, Parnas’einu …” which is found in Birkas Hamazon dealing specifically with one’s livelihood (Yerushalmi).

2. “…Elokay Netzor …” which is found at the end of the Shemonah Esrei (Ohr Zaruha part 2,88)

3. “…Ha’Rachaman …” which has numerous requests found at the end of Birkas Hamazon.

C.  Prayers established specifically for Shabbos. Some examples are:

1. “…Berich Shemay …” extracted from the Zohar Hakadosh said during the opening of the Ark.

2. “…Ribon Ha’Olamim …” said after “Shalom Aleichem” on Shabbos night has many requests for one’s needs and is too allowed because it is considered an established prayer (Questions & Answers – Torah Lishma & Rav Pe’alim part 2, 46).

3. “…Ye’heh Ra’avah …” in the Shabbos Zmiros  also contains requests for one’s needs.  However, in this particular case, there are those that hold it is NOT permissible to ask for one’s needs over here, while others allow it.

D. All prayers that are NOT in the form of supplications or requests for mercy, but are rather in the form of Brochos are permissible.  Some examples are:

“…Yekum Purkan …” or Mishebeirachs that are made on behalf of the community after the Torah reading.

E.  Prayers for Klal Yisrael as a whole such as:

“…Zochreinu L’Chayim…” or “…mi Chamocha…” on Rosh Hashanah or Yom Kippur.

TRANSLATOR’S NOTE:

As this is a translation of the original Hebrew, if you are unclear on any of the Laws outlined herein in any  way whatsoever, please consult with a Posek (Halachic Authority).

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